22th November 2019 Today’s Round-Up of Climate News

“…forecasts from leading Arctic researchers leave little doubt about an upcoming mild winter.

“The summer of 2019 was the warmest on record, and the trend will continue into early 2020, researchers from the Arctic Regional Climate Centre (ArcRCC) Network conclude.

“The forecasts support evidence of drastic changes in the region. Arctic temperatures continue to warm at more than twice the global average and the extent of winter sea-ice is at record low levels.”


“Blame the Grinch or Mother Nature, but the annual Christmas in Ice sculpture park won’t open this year in North Pole, Alaska, because of a lack of ice.

“It’s the first cancellation since the event started 14 years ago in the city where Christmas is celebrated year-round…”


“When too much rain falls on farm fields, crops can rot, and the soil can wash away. But with too little rain, the plants can wilt. In the northeast U.S., both of these extremes are becoming more common. For example, in 2018, Pennsylvania had its wettest summer on record.”


“…, the MTA, the authority that runs the New York City subway system elaborated:

“‘We’re investing in capital projects around the system to prepare for the impacts of a changing climate.’

“‘We were testing a new ‘flex gate’ which is a flood barrier that would allow us to seal off a subway entrance.

“We ‘test flood’ the entrance for four hours to make sure it was installed correctly, which it was! We’re doing this because climate change is real.'”


“The hottest, the sunniest, the driest … the list of weather-related records being reached and breached in recent years seems to be unparalleled.

“Well, the record keepers can add another one to the list following revelations that this autumn has been the wettest in [Denmark‘s] history – or at least since levels started being registered back in 1874.”


“Two people were to die on the first day of the deluge last week. More than 80 per cent of Venice, a Unesco world heritage site, was underwater.

“The Basilica, the cathedral church of the city, and St Mark’s Square were flooded. Modern as well as historic works of art suffered, including one of Banksy’s most famous drawings, that of a refugee child submerged at Campo San Pantalon.”


“The summer of 2019, for example, set record high temperatures across Italy, forcing dozens of cities to take steps to deal with the impact of hot weather, including handing out bottled water on the street and issuing warnings for tourists to stay inside, hydrate more, and avoid strenuous activities.

“Last winter, unusually high temperatures affected ski slopes in the country’s mountainous regions.”


“[Nigeria‘s] General Manager of LASEPA, Dr Adedolapo Fasawe, in a statement on Thursday urged residents to ensure adequate ventilation at homes and offices in order to mitigate the intensity of the prevailing heatwave in the state. Fasawe also advised to adequately prepare for heat intensity associated with the dry season which had manifested globally as heatwaves with serious public health implications.”


Zimbabwe has removed import controls on maize and wheat flour following a severe drought that cut supplies, a cabinet minister said. More than half of Zimbabwe’s population requires food aid following an El Nino-induced drought that also reduced water levels in the biggest hydro dam, leading to rolling power cuts.”


Israelis should brace themselves for summer heatwave temperatures of 46 degrees Celsius (115°F) by 2050 and up to 50°C (122°F) by 2100

“…unless governments worldwide meet the challenge of cutting greenhouse gases to slow global warming, an internationally renowned climate scientist has warned.”


“On Wednesday morning, a man known by the name Abbas risked his life to help people stuck in rain floods in Saudi Arabia‘s Wadi Nayra, a town located in Al Baha governorate.

“As most incidents these days, bystanders filmed the rescue mission and shared the incident on social media.”


“Experts are warning that over the next two to three months, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam can all expect severe drought conditions which will affect agricultural production.

“Of the four countries, Thailand and Cambodia are expected to suffer the most, according to the report.”


“The Australian state of New South Wales is gasping under the worst levels of air pollution recorded as smoke from widespread bushfires causes a spike in hospital visits and hazards including poor visibility for drivers.

“Sydney, the country’s most populous city, woke up to a thick haze, and blood red sun, for the fourth consecutive day on Friday…”


“An obsessive compulsive dog who was abandoned as a puppy has a new mission: helping find and save koalas injured in Australia’s recent devastating bushfires.

“Bear, a Cattle Dog cross-breed, is trained to find both koalas and and quolls, another small Australian marsupial, in the wild.”


“Most of the country [NZ] has already had sweltering temperatures this month – with two top-10 November temperature records – 33 degrees in Cheviot and 34 degrees in the Bay of Plenty – happening in the first days of the month.

“Mr Brandolino said hitting records so early in the month was a sign of climate change.”


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21st November 2019 Today’s Round-Up of Climate News

My apologies again for the lack of an economic thread – work, work, work…

“Record-breaking spring temperatures helped spark and fan bushfires across Australia on Thursday, forecasting a potentially devastating bushfire summer.

“Melbourne’s maximum temperature of 40.9C matched the 1894 record for hottest November day. Laverton was the hottest place in Victoria at 44.3 degrees…

“In Tasmania, Hobart equalled its hottest ever November day…”


“Residents [of Mildura, Australia] told Guardian Australia it was like a “wall of dust”, a danger to asthmatics, and “unliveable”.

“And, for many, it is not even the worst dust storm this year. In May residents reported a storm as the town’s worst in 40 years.”


“Even as Maui moves deeper into fall, Kahului continues to break heat records, reaching 92 degrees on Tuesday that topped the old record of 91 degrees…”


“After a weekend of record-breaking high temperatures, Angelenos broke out jackets and umbrellas Wednesday as rain — and even snow — fell on Southern California.”


“In the new reality of the U.S. Arctic, open water is the November norm for the Chukchi. Instead of thick, years-old ice, researchers are studying waves and how they may pummel the northern Alaska coastline.

““We’re trying to understand what the new autumn looks like in the Arctic,” said Jim Thomson, an oceanographer at the UW Applied Physics Laboratory.”


“When prolonged periods of severe weather strike, two things often get the blame these days: climate change and the jet stream.

“Many have expressed concerns that the rapidly melting Arctic is now disturbing the jet stream, bringing more frequent bouts of wild weather. But potentially even more powerful changes are afoot in the tropics – and the consequences could be severe.”


Britain is set for a washout weekend with heavy rain on the way and more than 70 flood warnings or alerts in place.

“The country has endured severe conditions in recent days… heavy rain is expected for much of the UK across the weekend, and the Environment Agency still has 55 flood alerts in place for England, along with 17 more serious warnings, after severe flooding in the past fortnight.”


“It has been one week since historic floods caused more than a billion dollars worth of damage in Venice, and the skies are not exactly clearing. All across the country, extreme weather has flooded rivers, downed trees, caused mudslides, and wreaked collective havoc.

“And according to a new report called “The Climate Has Already Changed” released Tuesday by Italy’s environmental watchdog group Legambiente, this is just the beginning.”


“A third of plant species in tropical Africa are threatened with extinction, a new study suggests.

Plants are crucial to many ecosystems and life in general, providing food and oxygen, as well as being the source of myriad materials and medicines. However, human activities including logging, mining and agriculture pose a major threat.”


“The months long drought is affecting most of southern Africa.

“The United Nations estimates that more than 11 million people now face crisis levels of food insecurity in places like Zimbabwe and Mozambique, where two cyclones wiped out crops earlier this year. Among the hardest-hit areas is South Africa’s Northern Cape province…”


Zimbabwe’s second-biggest city of Bulawayo will extend interruptions to water supplies because of depleting resources, the town clerk said.”


“Reindeer owned by traditional herder families of Mongolia are getting sick and dying due to climate change melting the ‘eternal ice’ patches they rely on, scientists claim.

“The Tsaatan people use the ice for clean drinking water and to keep the reindeer cool in the summer. The ice is melting for the first time in living memory.”


Read the previous ‘Climate’ thread here and visit my Patreon page here.

20th November 2019 Today’s Round-Up of Climate News

Apologies for the lack of an economic thread this morning – time is not my own today!

“Arctic sea ice recovery between Russia and Alaska has slowed to record levels since bottoming out over the summer, according to research, as climate change clears ice quicker and for longer periods.

““Very slow sea ice growth continues in the Chukchi Sea,” tweeted Zack Labe, a University of California Ph.D. student studying sea ice, citing NSIDC data. The Chukchi Sea lies northwest of Alaska above the Bering Strait.

“An attached chart showed November ice extent in the Chukchi Sea at its lowest level since records began. Melting in early spring and summer likely contributed to the record, Labe wrote last week.

““Extensive open water remains in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, resulting in unusually high air temperatures in the region,” NSIDC said in its latest update.”


“It may be 330 miles north of the Arctic Circle, but record warmth has been the story this year on Alaska’s North Slope. Through Nov. 17, it has been the warmest year to date on record in Utqiaġvik, over 2 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than the same period three years ago, according to the Southeast Regional Climate Center.

“The persistence of the warmth has been remarkable.”


“A rare species of porpoise is facing imminent extinction as fishing vessels appear to be flouting an international ban on them entering its last sanctuary, off the coast of Mexico, the head of a U.N. treaty said…

“There are thought to be fewer than 30 vaquita porpoises left worldwide…”


“Timaru [NZ] has been hammered by a hail storm causing damage to buildings, closing some businesses and stretching emergency services.

“Large, golf ball-sized hail stones which began falling just before noon on Wednesday, smashed windows, damaged roofs, closed businesses and dented vehicles. Damage from the massive hail stones is being reported throughout Timaru.”


“Deadly bushfires have ravaged parts of Australia in recent weeks, whipped up by soaring temperatures, strong winds and the worst drought in decades.

“But summer hasn’t really even begun — and fears are growing that conditions will only get worse. More than 100 schools have closed in South Australia as catastrophic fire conditions threatened seven districts across the state Wednesday.”


“Global heating is “supercharging” an increasingly dangerous climate mechanism in the Indian Ocean that has played a role in disasters this year including bushfires in Australia and floods in Africa.

“Scientists and humanitarian officials say this year’s record Indian Ocean dipole, as the phenomenon is known, threatens to reappear more regularly and in a more extreme form as sea surface temperatures rise.”


“Data released by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) reveals that the number of cyclones in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal has increased by 32% in the last five years.

“Compared to previous decades, the last 10 years have also seen an 11% rise in these extreme occurrences.”


“About 370,000 people have been displaced so far due to flooding, according to the latest UN figures.

“Authorities have not yet said how many people died in the flooding, Somalia’s worst in recent history.”


A few tiny misunderstandings in here:

“Climate change could directly cost the world economy US$7.9 trillion by mid-century as increased drought, flooding and crop failures hamper growth and threaten infrastructure, new analysis showed Wednesday.

“The Economist Intelligence Unit’s (EIU) Climate Change Resilience Index measured the preparedness of the world’s 82 largest economies and found that based on current trends the fallout of warming temperatures would shave off three percent of global GDP by 2050.”


“2016 is currently the hottest year on record since recording started in 1880, Scientific American reports. That was a strong El Niño year, when unusually hot weather over the Pacific affects global climate. The fact that this year is approaching 2016’s global temperatures is worrisome, given that 2019 only had a weak El Niño effect that ended in July.

““The near-record warmth of 2019 is thus a testament to how greatly human-caused global warming is impacting the planet,” Jeff Masters, an extreme weather expert, writes for Scientific American. It also means that the last six years, from 2014 to 2019, will be the hottest six years since recording started in 1880.”


Read the previous ‘Climate’ thread here and visit my Patreon page here.

19th November 2019 Today’s Round-Up of Climate News

“Last month was Earth’s second-hottest October in recorded history, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

“The agency announced Monday that average global land and ocean surface temperatures in October were 1.76 degrees above the 20th century average. This was just 0.11 degrees shy of the record set in October 2015 — the highest since record keeping began in 1880.

““The last time we had a below-average temperature in October was in October 1976,” said Ahira Sánchez-Lugo, a climatologist at NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information and author of the agency’s newly released climate report. “We’ve been on an upward swing since then.””


“Arctic sea ice receded to record lows in October, according to data released Monday by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

“Ice coverage recorded in October was 32.2 percent below the 1981-2010 average, according to the NOAA…”


“The locals in Alaska this summer were not shy about talking about their melting mountaintops, or the collapsing salmon industry. As our native Tlingit cabdriver drove us into Juneau, he pointed out a peak in the far distance.

““That one, it used to be covered with snow all year,” he explained.”


“From subzero cold in northern Maine to 90s in southern California, enormous temperature contrasts spanned U.S. borders over the weekend. In every corner of the [US] nation, new records were established showing off its enormous diversity of extreme weather…”


“Wildfires and flooding exacerbated by climate change threaten to unleash contaminants from some of the most polluted sites across the United States, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) warned in a report publicly released Monday.

“According to the watchdog agency, about 60 percent of these sites are vulnerable to extreme weather events made worse by a changing climate.”


“Regions around England and Wales are facing record-breaking rainfall that has burst riverbanks and flooded towns. Worcestershire, Gloucestershire, the Midlands, and Yorkshire have all been impacted by floods… A recent study published in Nature connects recent shifts in flood patterns to climate change. The study specifically pointed to increased autumn rainfall in the UK, France and Germany as a result of climate change.”


“Switzerland is set to lose an important water reservoir as the glaciers continue to melt, affecting not only the agricultural sector and hydropower production, but also transport on Europe’s main waterways…

“Glaciers account for about 95% of all the freshwater stored on the planet. It’s therefore hardly surprising that the 1,500 glaciers on Swiss territory are considered crucial reservoirs of drinking water.”


“Southern Africa faces further drought through March as land preparation and planting of summer crops gets underway, even after most parts of the region received near-normal rainfall through early November, according to the Famine Early Warning Systems Network.”


“Pakistan’s worst locust plague in decades has devastated parts of the south west as swarms have ravaged wheat, cotton and vegetable crops, farmers’ leaders said…

“…the insects are hitting some of the poorest rural parts of Pakistan, where malnutrition is already common and farmers are often heavily in debt.”


“Population growth and climate change are putting increasingly intense pressure on the planet’s limited water supplies, with worsening shortages emerging from the Middle East to Asia and Latin America, researchers and bankers said on Monday…

“…easing the threat and ensuring more people have access to a stable, safe water supply will be hugely challenging…”


“Catastrophic fire danger conditions have been declared for much of South Australia for Wednesday, with more than 100 schools closed and at-risk residents told to leave their homes.

“The Bureau of Meteorology has forecast a maximum 42C for Adelaide, while the mercury is expected to reach 45C at Murray Bridge, 44C at Renmark, Port Augusta, Port Lincoln and Whyalla, and 43C at Port Pirie.”


“Fire tornadoes are set to become a more common feature of the Australian landscape as climate change takes hold later this century.

“That’s according to new research from the University of New South Wales’s Climate Change Research Centre in Sydney, which found the hot, dry and windy conditions that fuel “catastrophic pyrocumulonimbus wildfires” are not only likely to occur more frequently in southeast Australia, but also earlier in the spring and summer.”


“Freshwater lakes have been identified as a potential “ticking time bomb” amid fears greenhouse gases contained in the water could double as a result of climate change, scientists have warned.

“A University of Cambridge study found that after adding to the amount of plant matter in the water, a consequence of warmer temperatures, the amount of methane and carbon dioxide increases by an average of 1.5 to 2.7 times.”


“Climate change is a threat to hundreds of species of endangered animals, but conservationists aren’t taking this into account in their plans to save those at risk.

“For instance, the bull trout – which is regarded as threatened rather than endangered and isn’t one of the 459 species analysed by Delach’s team – needs cold water. So when the wildlife service looked at which areas needed to be protected to save the species, it included only those where water temperatures are projected to remain cold enough for the fish to survive.”


Read the previous ‘Climate’ thread here and visit my Patreon page here.

18th November 2019 Today’s Round-Up of Climate News

Venice was hit Sunday by a record third exceptional tide in the same week while other parts of Italy struggled with a series of weather woes, from rain-swollen rivers to high winds to an out-of-season avalanche…

“…it marked the third time since Tuesday night’s 1.87-meter flood… that water levels in Venice had topped 1.5 meters. Since records began in 1872, that level had never been reached even twice in one year, let alone three times in one week.”


“Rising global temperatures are worrying truffle hunters around the Italian town of Alba, where the most prized specimens can fetch twice the price of gold.

“This particularly warm October, eight out of 10 white truffles unearthed by Carlo Olivero with his trusty 3-year-old dog Steel were dark, withered and dried out.”


“Several schools are closed across Austria as parts of the Alpine country deal with masses of snow, the threat of avalanches and flooding by swelling rivers and lakes…

“Schools stayed closed and helicopters scouted the nearby mountains for possible avalanches.”


“The UK Met Office said its Sheffield weather station has recorded its wettest ever autumn. It stated:

“With 15 days still to go, the site has already recorded 427.6 mm of rain. The previous record was set in 2000 with 425.2 mm of rain falling between September 1 and November 30 that year.”


“Human-caused climate change is on track to make the Arctic Ocean functionally ice-free for part of each year starting sometime between 2044 and 2067, according to a study…

“Among the current generation of models, some show ice-free Septembers as early as 2026…”


“Dryers… which blast freshly harvested wheat and canola with warm air [Canada], are essential for farmers in the region as they attempt to salvage another poor harvest: weeks of rain and snow have left crops too wet to cut or sell otherwise.

““Too many more years like this and farmers here might not survive,” he says.”


“The Anchorage area [Alaska] saw its first significant snowfall Saturday, with totals in town starting at 5 inches and piling up to over a foot in Eagle River. Anchorage not only broke records for snowfall and precipitation amounts Saturday, but also tied the 1967 high-temperature record by reaching 45 degrees…”


“The heat wave that baked Southern California over the weekend led to broken temperature records in some areas, but forecasters said the region should get some relief by the middle of this week…

“This will be the first rainfall of the season, NWS meteorologists said. While the rains will bring cooler temperatures, the NWS warned of possible hazards.”


“[Hawaii‘s] November continues to be unusually hot, with high temperature records tied or broken 10 out of 14 days this month.

“Records were tied or broken Nov. 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 11, with more record high temperatures set Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday in Hilo, according to the National Weather Service.”


“Fires raging across the Amazon this summer were not “normal” new research shows, counteracting claims made by the Brazilian government that they were “below the historical average”.

“Amazonian fires can occur in a number of ways but there is strong evidence this year’s wildfires were linked to an increase in deforestation…”


“Almost 90 per cent of Chilean fruit producers believe they face a fragile or unsustainable future because of the drought affecting large swathes of the country

“…according to a survey by fruit producer federation Fedefruta.”


“This is the shocking moment a tornado hit a Christchurch suburb [NZ], injuring two people.

“The twister hit Sydenham, just two km south of Christchurch’s city centre on Monday, tearing the roof off a local SaveMart and sending debris flying into the air.”


“The Insurance Council of Australia has declared Sunday’s hail storm on the Sunshine Coast a “catastrophe” after receiving more than 5,000 claims and a damage bill reaching $40 million.

“It is expected more than half of the insurance claims will be for damaged vehicles with one car yard alone taking more than 200 cars after the powerful storm tore through the area on Sunday.”


“Following the weekend hailstorm, south-east Queensland will swelter through a midweek “low-intensity heatwave” as near 40-degree temperatures create another nightmare day for firefighters…

“The fire service ordered residents on the south-eastern side of Crows Nest, about 35 kilometres north-east of Toowoomba, to flee to an evacuation centre at Crows Nest Showgrounds.”


“A weekend of intense heat in Western Australia has seen 36 locations, including Perth, record their warmest November day on record and now the hot air mass is on its way to the eastern states.

“Perth was among a group of cities and towns to post record temperatures for November as it sweltered through 40.4 degrees Celsius on Saturday… Meanwhile the Mid West town of Morawa hit 45C…”


“Katherine’s record-breaking heatwave [Northern Territories, Australia] is set to continue as the town enters its 12th consecutive day above 40 degrees.

“The Bureau of Meteorology now says Katherine and lots of the region have entered “extreme heatwave” conditions… It has already smashed the previous record of 20 days above 40 degrees in any one year.”


“Heavy rains in October and November have brought more misery to India’s farmers

“…summer-sown crops such as soybean, cotton, rice and vegetables suffered rain and flood damage during the wettest June-September monsoon season in 25 years.”


““Stranded populations [Nigeria] are running short of food and those who can afford it are paying high sums to be transported to the other areas, putting their lives at risks while crossing the river or running for safety…

““Providing food is the main priority, along with water, shelters and emergency health services,” OCHA said in the statement.”


Read the previous ‘Climate’ thread here and visit my Patreon page here.

15th November 2019 Today’s Round-Up of Climate News

“Australia is reeling from deadly bushfires and the worst drought in decades — but fears are now growing that things could get worse, as a water shortage in the country’s biggest city begins to bite.

“Four people have died in this year’s blazes, which have been exacerbated by hot, dry weather. And now the city of Sydney — home to more than 5 million people — faces a warning that dams could run dry by 2022…”


“On rain-starved properties across Australia, farmers are having to make tough decisions to keep their stock and businesses alive.

“For farmer and grazier Scott Richardson, that has meant euthanasing four cows before performing caesareans on each of them at his recently deceased father’s property, 100 kilometres south-west of Dubbo in central-west New South Wales.”


“There is little relief in sight as Katherine [Northern Territories] swelters through a “prolonged, severe to extreme” heatwave, meteorologist Bradley Wood from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology says…

“The bureau’s observation site at Tindal RAAF Base recorded its hottest day in history last month…”


“The utility that serves more than 5 million electrical customers in one of the world’s most technologically advanced areas is now faced again and again with a no-win decision:

“…risk starting catastrophic deadly wildfires, or turn off the lights and immiserate millions of paying customers.”


“The frigid air that invaded the U.S. from the Arctic during the past week has tied or broken nearly 400 cold temperature records, including all-time November records, across a broad swath.

“Yet over the long term, data shows that cold outbreaks of this severity are becoming a rarity, as record highs outpace record lows by an increasingly large margin.”


“The Arctic blast has come to an end for the majority of the United States but forecasters warned on Thursday that the Southeast may be in for a drenching…

“Forecasters said the Gulf system may bring heavy rain with potential for flash flooding across the Southeast.”


“Hail is wreaking havoc in the market for auto dealer lot insurance.

“In 2018, Zurich North America, one of the major commercial auto insurance providers, decided not to renew policies with hundreds of dealerships throughout the middle of the U.S., citing “catastrophic” losses due to hail damage.”


“Who would have ever imagined that you could still plant bulbs on the third weekend of November [in Alaska]? Or that you could probably even get away with waiting an additional week after that?

“This month, temperatures in Anchorage are 13 degrees above normal… We’re on a run of whopping 20 months of record-breaking temperatures, with no let-up in sight.

“Is this settling in for you? Did you miss the article about pussy willows flowering right now in area woods? We are still harvesting herbs. What is going on?”


“Global warming may cause the microscopic organisms habiting the polar regions of the Earth”s oceans, such as the Arctic, to be slowly conquered by their counterparts from the tropical regions, affecting multiple ecosystems, according to two major studies which assessed more than 35,000 samples collected from all the world”s oceans between 2009 and 2013.”


“There seems to be no end to the downpours this month [in the UK]. At this rate it may end up as the wettest November on record.

“The record for the highest November rainfall was set in 1852, according to the 253-year rainfall archives for England and Wales.”


“Heavy snowfall across a large swath of southeast France has left one person dead and cut power to some 300,000 homes…

“”It’s an exceptional situation because the snow is heavily concentrated in a single area, which is why we have significant damage to our power lines,” said the spokesman, Robin Devogelaere.”


“Flooded Venice has been hit by a new high tide of 160cm (5.3ft), giving residents no respite from a crisis costing millions of euros. World-famous St Mark’s Square, a magnet for tourists, has been closed, and schools are shut for a third day.

“The Italian city’s famous waterbuses – the vaporetti – have stopped running.”


“At least 27 people were killed when lightning struck amid heavy rains overnight in various locations in Pakistan’s southern desert region, officials said on November 15… A state of emergency was declared by authorities…

“Dozens of people, including many women and children, were being treated at hospitals after sustaining injuries caused by lightning and falling structures caused by the rain… The death toll was expected to rise.”


“The methane emissions leaking from the world’s coalmines could be stoking the global climate crisis at the same rate as the shipping and aviation industries combined.

“Coalmines are belching millions of tonnes of methane into the atmosphere unchecked, because policymakers have overlooked the rising climate threat, according to new research.”


“Insects are disappearing en masse.

“A new report from the Somerset Wildlife Trust in the UK found that 41% of the world’s 1 million known insect species are threatened with extinction. The decline of butterflies, bees, and other bugs might seem low on a list of environmental concerns that includes rising seas and melting glaciers.”


Read the previous ‘Climate’ thread here and visit my Patreon page here.