“NSW declared its earliest total fire bans on record on Wednesday in an ominous sign of what could become a disastrous season of bushfires unless substantial rain arrives, fire experts say.
“Fire crews battled at least 83 fires across the state after stronger-than-expected winds prompted authorities to take the unusual step of declaring fire bans in Sydney, the Illawarra and the Hunter regions part way through the day…
“The bans beat the previous earliest such declarations anywhere in NSW by almost two weeks… While the big dry has drawn much attention – all of NSW was declared in drought earlier this month – the driest start to a year in the state since 1965 and record daytime temperatures have fed growing concern among fire researchers for some time.
“For Sydney, year-to-date daytime temperatures have averaged 23.7 degrees, eclipsing the previous highest of 23.6 degrees in 2016, the Bureau of Meteorology said.”
“A severe drought has gripped an area of Australia more than twice the size of Texas, turning normally fertile crop areas into dust bowls, draining water reserves and leaving wine-producing regions parched. Hungry kangaroos are turning up in cities. Millions of dollars of farm equipment is idle across vast expanses of agricultural land in the continent’s east and farmers are wondering if they should bother planting crops.”
“”We’re in a record-setting streak right now,” Mark Moede, a National Weather Service meteorologist in San Diego, said in an interview. “It’s unprecedented — typically it’s pretty temperate.” Since July 1, San Diego hasn’t had a single day where the high temperature fell below normal.”
“The heat wave that has recently swept the US has put 100 million Americans under heat warnings; caused power cuts in California where temperatures in places such as Palm Springs approached 122 degrees; and resulted in deaths from New York to the Mexican border, where people smugglers abandoned their clients in the desert. Further north, in Canada, more than 70 people perished in the Montreal area after a record burst of heat. Record temperatures raise wrenching questions about the future viability of cities such as Phoenix…”
“Storm clouds gathered over southern Oregon and northern California early on Wednesday, threatening to spark more wildfires with lightning strikes as emergency crews battled several deadly blazes, forecasters said. The clouds carried little rain and offered little chance of a break from the bone-dry conditions plaguing the region, the National Weather Service said.”
“Williamsport, Pennsylvania, is likely to have two back-to-back months of record rainfall. Following the wettest July on record, the wettest August on record is on the doorstep.”
“A researcher from the University of Calgary says temperatures are on the rise across Alberta, but Calgary, along with Banff and Jasper national parks, is really feeling the heat.”
“In July, extreme heat set new all-time records in northern parts of Norway, pushing temperatures over 30 degrees celsius (86℉). The Norwegian Meteorological office showed continued high temperatures up to 40 degrees celsius (105℉) in some areas for the beginning of August.
In these tinder-dry conditions, wildfires start very easily, and a prolonged drought and gusty winds have exacerbated the problem. In May, the warmest on record, the fire service was battling several outbreaks in up to 1,000 acres.”
“Three places in central Norway recorded their wettest August day in the past 78 years, but the drought isn’t over.”
“The researchers say that at its current rate of droughts, the Amazon could dry up with devastating consequences.”
“The Government of Venezuela decreed on Tuesday the red alert after the flood in the rivers Orinoco and Caroni, after the latter registered 18.02 meters above sea level, a situation that was not seen for more than 40 years in the country… “The floods are products of the rains and climate change is the fault of the capitalist model,” said a spokesman.”
Further flooding in Trinidad & Tobago:
“As the end of the rainy season approaches, and dams have yet to reach a 60% provincial average, Cape Town may be dealt another drought blow. South African Weather Services has predicted that another El Niño event may hit the country at the beginning of Spring.”
“A study of the world’s largest colony of king penguins has found that their population declined by 88 percent over the last 35 years – from 2 million to less than 200,000. The majestic birds live on the Ile aux Cochons island, halfway between the tip of Africa and Antarctica. The decline likely began around 1997… when a major El Niño temporarily warmed the southern Indian Ocean, killing off or displacing the fish and squid the penguins rely on.
“The species does not fly or migrate, so they found themselves stuck on their foodless island. El Niños typically come in 2-7 year cycles but can be amplified by global warming, which make the cycles last longer.”
Guangdong province, China prepares for another typhoon – pictures:
“Heavy rains and flash floods in the Philippines have forced more than 50,000 people from their homes.”
“A tsunami of waste and plastic washing up and being thrown to shore as volunteers avoid being hit by rubbish has been caught on camera. Rippling and swirling piles of bottles, bags and packaging can be seen being carried by waves that send waste flying into the air. The heartbreaking footage was captured at Manila Bay, Philippines…”
Read yesterday’s ‘Climate’ thread here.
“Heavy rain in Himachal Pradesh for the last three days has claimed 19 lives. The state capital Shimla also received the highest rain in August in 117 years, the weather office has said. It has warned the hill state could experience more rain.
“The India Meteorological Department or IMD has also forecast heavy rain in other states. Goa and the Konkan region, Odisha and Kerala will continue to experience heavy rain, the weather office has said.”
Death roll rises to 39 as unprecedented flooding hits Kerala:
“Experts believe that long, dry periods, especially during winter and the pre-monsoon period, caused by increased warming, is a significant factor for more fires. The annual mean temperature in India has increased by 1.2 degree Celsius since the beginning of the 20th century… The last decade (2001-2010/ 2007-2016) was also the warmest on record…”
“Shaanxi province has been battling heavy downpours and howling winds since early July. The extreme weather had triggered severe flooding and landslides. The embankment of a reservoir near Zizhou county was breached in mid July, forcing 20,000 residents to evacuate.”
“A tropical low that has been spinning near the southeast coast of China since last week finally became Tropical Storm Bebinca on Monday and will bring several days of heavy rainfall to parts of China and Vietnam this week.”
“The tropics remain full of life in the West Pacific as Severe Tropical Storm Leepi takes aim at southern Japan Tuesday into Tuesday night.”
“Indoor playgrounds are proving a godsend for parents looking to allow their children to stay active and safe as Japan sweats through a summer of record-breaking heat. Parents are turning to playgrounds in air-conditioned shopping centers and other commercial enterprises when they would typically use public spaces outdoors.”
“Australia is drying up. Red dust has replaced green fields. Cracked and baked creek beds offer no relief to malnourished sheep and cattle. The stoic resilience of Aussie farmers is being tested. As News.com put it, “Some farmers say the only water they’ve seen in years is the tears on their pillows.””
“Sydney could be hit with dust storms from Wednesday as winds increase and temperatures rise. Conditions are so dry in rural New South Wales that the dust could be carried from western inland areas to the eastern coast.”
“California’s deadly wildfire season continues, and one staggering data point illustrates just how serious things are: Three of the state’s top 10 largest wildfires on record are burning at the same time.”
“A fire in Glacier National Park has sparked evacuations over the weekend as record heat and high winds cause the fire to spread. The Howe Ridge Fire first ignited over the weekend after lightning struck on Saturday. The wildfire spread rapidly as triple-digit temperatures and high winds fed the flames.”
“At least 27 people have been rescued after 8 to 9 inches of rain caused flash flooding in the Nueces River at a park west of San Antonio [Texas].”
“The police chief in Brick, New Jersey, declared a state of emergency and evacuated residents of a retirement community. Seven to 8 inches of rain fell on the Jersey shore town in a matter of hours… In Pennsylvania, a flash flood emergency was declared for western Bradford County… The National Weather Service in State College said there were numerous reports of 6 inches of rain or more in Schuylkill and Columbia counties.”
“In the 80 years since the weather service began taking the official Cleveland temperatures at the airport, Cleveland has never had warmer summer evenings than this year.”
Video of flash-flooding across Trinidad & Tobago:
“A meeting of German officials to discuss the ongoing drought has failed to produce the result farmers have been hoping for. The Agriculture Ministry said it was still too early to decide on financial aid.”
“A violent bout of torrential rain pounded the Tuscan city of Grosseto [Italy] overnight, causing flooding and havoc…”
“Israel, like Europe and other parts of the northern hemisphere, has been experiencing record-breaking temperatures this summer.”
“Senegal is experiencing the third severe drought period in six years, after 2011 and 2014, leaving nearly a quarter of a million people food insecure as the ‘hunger season’ begins.”
“Sudanese medics say at least 23 people have been killed in heavy flooding… more than 8,900 families have been left homeless.”
“Melting of ice shelves in West Antarctica speeds up and slows down in response to changes in deep ocean temperature, and is far more variable than previously thought, according to new research published this week in the journal Nature Geoscience.”
Read yesterday’s ‘Climate’ thread here.
“Russia this year has suffered the most Arctic wildfires since satellite monitoring started as climate change creates the conditions necessary for blazes to start and then take hold.
“Monitoring by two Nasa satellites recorded 10,057 hotspots in Russia’s Arctic territory by the start of August, 10 times more than were found in the same period a decade ago, according to data provided to The Telegraph.”
“It’s been a scorching weekend in Saskatchewan as the province bakes in a heatwave. Three all-time heat records were broken on Saturday, along with five monthly records, according to Environment Canada.”
“On Saturday, the old record set in 1978 of 34.9 degrees Celsius was crushed as the city of Winnipeg reached a high of 37.1.”
“Extremely hot summers and brutally cold winters—widely understood to be effects of climate change—are likely to have a huge impact on the U.S. economy in the coming decades, according to a new analysis from the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond that overturns previous thinking on the topic.”
“This week, the ocean temperature off Torrey Pines was measured at 81.3 degrees, breaking a 17-year-record for water temperature along the California coast. Last week, researchers measured the water temperature at Scripps Pier at 78.6 degrees which set a regional temperature record.”
“As of Friday, there were 114 total wildfires across the country, consuming a combined area larger than the state of Delaware… California is on track to have one of its worst wildfire seasons on record.”
“On video, it looked like a glowing, orange tornado, that post-storm damage surveys have shown contained winds of at least 143 miles per hour — equivalent to an EF-3 tornado. The images, taken by authorized drone operators, show what happens when you combine the capriciousness of a wildfire with the fickle fate dolled out by a fire tornado [California].”
“Cedar Grove Police Lt. Frank Pumphrey said he hasn’t witnessed flooding like this since Hurricane Floyd in 1999… The highest rainfall totals were reported in Bergen, Essex and Passaic counties [NJ, according to early reports. Caldwell topped the list with a staggering 4.92 inches.”
“The [UK’s] heatwave will cause tens of thousands of homes to sink into the ground, insurers have warned, as they are braced for subsidence claims to quadruple. Over the past two months a record breaking spell of hot and dry weather has caused the soil on which homes are built to shrink, which will result in many sinking into the ground later this year, it is claimed.”
“So far this year the Netherlands had 51 summer days – days on which temperatures climbed to 25 degrees or higher in De Bilt, according to Weeronline. 2006 also had 51 summer days, but spread over the entire year. Sunday was the 51st summer day of 2018. Only one more hot day is needed to break the 2006 record.”
“With blisteringly hot summers becoming a regular occurrence, climate change could soon push an environment that is uncomfortable into one that is unsustainable — particularly for countries along the Arab Gulf and in North Africa. The past three years have been the hottest in Egypt since temperatures have been recorded, said Ashraf Zaki, representative of the Egyptian Meteorological Authority.”
“A huge shortfall in snow and rain across much of [Afghanistan] over the normally wet colder months decimated the winter harvest, threatening the already precarious livelihoods of millions of farmers and sparking warnings of severe food shortages.”
“”Our state is in the midst of an unprecedented flood havoc,” explained Kerala chief minister Pinarayi Vijayan, in a statement Friday. “For the first time in history, 27 dams in the state had to be opened. Never before has the state witnessed a calamity of this scale,” the minister added.”
“Typhoon Yagi is likely to make landfall around Yuhuan or Xiangshan in Zhejiang Province during the night of August 12, weather authorities have announced. It is the third typhoon that will impact Shanghai within a month, a first in recorded history.”
“Massive clean-up efforts are under way in Manila after heavy rains deluged the Philippine capital over the weekend. At least three people are known to have died in the flooding, say officials.”
“Lee Chang-seok at Seoul Women’s University said, “Trees have withered even in the mountains, which have richer soil and hold more water underground, showing how severe the [Korean] drought is.””
“A record heatwave has put Japan’s world-famous Tsukiji fish market in a crisis in its final months at its current site at Tokyo’s Chuo ward… According to the report, the market’s ageing air conditioning system has malfunctioned and cannot keep fish and seafood fresh amid high temperatures since the heatwave blanketed Japan in mid-July.”
“The agency predicts rainfall of up to 100 millimeters over the 24-hour period through 6 a.m. on Aug. 14 in Tokyo and surrounding prefectures as well as in the central Japan region of Tokai including Nagoya.”
“A huge convoy of about 20 road trains laden with 2,000 bales of hay is en route from outback Western Australia to drought-stricken farmers in New South Wales.”
“At 50C – halfway to water’s boiling point and more than 10C above a healthy body temperature – heat becomes toxic. Human cells start to cook, blood thickens, muscles lock around the lungs and the brain is choked of oxygen…
“Not long ago, 50C was considered an anomaly, but it is increasingly widespread. Earlier this year, the 1.1 million residents of Nawabshah, Pakistan, endured the hottest April ever recorded on Earth, as temperatures hit 50.2C. In neighbouring India two years earlier, the town of Phalodi sweltered in 51C – the country’s hottest ever day…
““We must hope that we don’t see 50C. That would be uncharted territory. Infrastructure would be crippled and ecosystem services would start to break down, with long-term consequences.””
Read the previous ‘Climate’ thread here.
“With the current heatwave proving to be a nightmare in Shanghai, home is not the dream place to catch a good night’s rest for some folk.
“As the mega city swelters under record-high temperatures, it sometimes looks as if people are dropping dead from the torrid climate on its best-known shopping avenue.
“Normally bustling Nanjing East Road has turned into an open-air slumber party on recent nights as local residents try to escape the heat of their cramped nearby homes by sleeping outside on benches or directly on the pavement….
The city of more than 24 million people has endured an extended hot spell over recent weeks, with temperatures yesterday topping 35 deg C for the 16th day this summer…
“Eight of the 12 highest temperatures reached over the past century were hit only in the last five years, according to the city weather bureau.”
“[North Korea] has already said that it is suffering drought conditions due to prolonged unusually high temperatures, and that’s likely to hit agriculture hard in a country where it was reported last year that 70% of the population relies on food aid.”
“Farmers across eastern Australia are enduring what some have called the worst drought in living memory… “Farmers are getting out left, right and centre. It’s gotten to the point where it’s cheaper to shoot your cows than it is to feed them,” NSW dairy farmer Jason Maloney told the BBC.”
“”It’s an extreme event [the record heat off the California cost],” Clarissa Anderson, a biological oceanographer at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, said in an interview. Like extreme heat events on land, these record-breaking temperatures at sea are largely propelled by weather but given a substantial boost by human-caused global warming.”
“San Diegans, yes, your body thermostats are operating properly. The nights have been hot. Extremely hot. Record-breaking hot.”
“Firefighters in California are continuing to battle some of the most destructive wildfires ever to hit the state. The raging Mendocino Complex fire, comprising twin blazes in the state’s north, has become California’s largest wildfire since records began a century ago.”
“We’re on pace for the second-hottest summer in Seattle’s history… Thursday marks the 10th day Seattle has recorded a temperature of 90 degrees or higher this summer, trailing only the sweltering summer of 2015, which had 12 days reach 90-plus degrees. The city has also recorded 27 days of 85-plus-degree days this year, which ties the record set last year.”
“As predicted, the mercury soared enough in Kamloops today to break a 120-year-old temperature record.”
“Two huge wildfires burning in northern B.C. have now merged into one massive blaze of 28,000 hectares.”
“Right now we are forecasting triple-digit temperatures on Friday, Saturday and Sunday [for Montana], with the potential to break all-time heat records on Friday and Saturday.”
“Scotland is more familiar with weather extremes of the icy or wet variety, but this summer’s exceptionally dry conditions have resulted in a traditional Highland games being cancelled.”
“Officials at Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust (WWT) Slimbridge, a wetland wildlife reserve in Gloucestershire [UK], said in a statement Thursday that six Andean flamingos laid eggs for the first time in 15 years. It happened as the sweltering temperatures – which have recently surpassed or are threatening to surpass record highs – started to remind the creatures of the hot, humid summers in their natural habitat.”
“The Swedish election next month was supposed to be all about immigration, but with the sweltering heatwave that’s had the Nordic region’s biggest economy in its grip for months, the parties are now jostling to meet growing climate angst among voters.”
“After days of exceptional heat, the rains came in dramatic fashion across northern Germany. Several people were injured by falling trees and travel was severely disrupted.”
“At least 12 people have died in the mountains or waterways over a ten-day period as record temperatures gripped Switzerland in a heatwave. Nine died hiking or climbing while three more drowned since July 30.,, The record-breaking temperatures also saw many people take to the lakes and rivers to cool off. This resulted in drownings…”
“1,600 people, many of them children, have been evacuated from a region of southern France popular with British campers after heavy rain caused flash floods.”
“More than 1,000 firefighters are battling blazes for a seventh day in the popular tourist area in Portugal. Extremely high temperatures have been blamed for sparking the wildfires.”
“The ongoing hot and dry weather that continues to grip most parts of Europe is forcing Czech farmers to slaughter their cows early as they have no hay left to feed them. With grass turning brown and brittle, cows have very little to eat and livestock breeders are forced to break into their winter reserves much earlier than usual.”
“Farmers across Europe are witnessing an extremely tight harvest this year, with drought conditions crippling produce across the continent, according to various European sources. Germany is experiencing its lowest harvest in 24 years, with intakes down 20% on last year, according to DRV, the German umbrella group of agricultural co-operatives, in its latest crop estimate.”
“Flash floods triggered by incessant rains and landslips in the hilly forest areas submerged the eastern part of the district [of Malappuram, India] on Thursday, disrupting normal life and wreaking heavy damage to property and crops.”
“Eight people have died and two remain missing after torrential rain battered a county in northwest China’s Gansu Province, local authorities said Friday.”
“For the second time in less than 10 days, Penangites were jolted by thunderstorms and strong winds which uprooted trees, ripped open zinc roofs and caused a billboard to topple.”
East Antarctic Ice Shelf no longer thought to be stable:
“Eventually, we came back to the question of Canada. (Or in the UK, Scotland.) Assessments by climate scientists have suggested cities around the Great Lakes are viable – and, until everyone else panics, affordable! Denver, for reasons I forget; the Pacific north-west, if you’re willing to take your chances with the earthquakes.”
Read yesterday’s ‘Climate’ thread here.
“It should come as no surprise that California is burning.
“On Wednesday, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reported that July was California’s hottest month since record keeping began in 1895.
“Those scorching temperatures withered the land, creating profoundly parched forests primed to catch fire with just a spark.”
“There is little relief on the fire lines, just more pain as more land is consumed by flames. Firefighters had hoped to contain the fast-growing Holy Fire. Even when massive drops of retardant slow the spread in one area, embers ignited a new stretch of hillside.”
“Blisteringly hot temperatures are on their way to the Prairies this week, with daytime highs expected to edge into all-time record territory for some places.”
“It’s supposed to be hot this time of year, but the first week of August was one for the record books in Boston. WBZ-TV executive weather producer Terry Eliasen says the 1st through 7th was the hottest first week of August in Boston ever recorded.”
“Hospitals are having to adopt winter-style emergency measures, including turning away patients through being busy, as the NHS struggles to cope with illnesses caused by the heatwave in the UK.”
France battling drought:
“It has been hot in Germany and Switzerland – so bloody hot in fact, parts of the Rhine river have dried up. Pictures captured along the most affected stretch of the river, which runs from Lake Constance to the Rhine Falls, show the water at extraordinarily low levels. An enormous section has dried up all together, leaving it looking like a sandy, rocky desert.”
“Over 1400 firefighters are still trying to bring a wildfire in southern Portugal under control. The blaze in the Monchique district of the Algarve raged over the weekend and the operation against it has been hampered by near-record high temperatures.”
“Torrential rain has caused massive flooding and landslides in Turkey.”
“…in many parts of the region, [Lebanon’s] farmlands have been disproportionately affected by global warming. The Bekaa Valley, nestled between Mount Lebanon and Syria, is stricken with droughts, and many wells are drying up. Growing potatoes, onions and other produce native to the region has been harder than ever before, experts and farmers say. But cannabis is a drought-resistant crop, requiring little water and no pesticides. And it flourishes in the high altitudes of the Bekaa plains.”
“Twenty-two people are dead and thousands have been left homeless in Niger after torrential rains caused heavy flooding, authorities said.”
“Torrential rain claimed 22 lives over the last 24 hours in Kerala [India] as the government sought the help of the army, navy and the air force and authorities were forced to open the shutters of Idukki reservoir, Asia’s biggest arch dam, after 26 years to release excess water.”
“At least 42 people have died in South Korea, as the country grapples with a record heatwave with temperatures unseen in more than 100 years.”
“Drought is turning many areas of the globe into arid wastelands. Excessive heat has cost lives, ruined crops and created water shortages. The effects are being felt from South America to the Arctic Circle.”
Read yesterday’s ‘Climate’ thread here.
“The entire state of New South Wales is now impacted by drought, official figures show.
“A drier-than-expected June and July has left many farmers with failing crops, a short supply of water and diminishing livestock feed…
““This is tough,” the NSW primary industries minister, Niall Blair, said in a statement on Wednesday.
“‘There isn’t a person in the state that isn’t hoping to see some rain for our farmers and regional communities.””
“[Typhoon Shanshan] could dump 350 millimetres (13.7 inches) of rain over the greater Tokyo region over the 24 hours by Thursday noon.”
“Hurricane Hector developed in the eastern Pacific and is now cruising through the central Pacific. After Hector passes south of Hawaii it will continue tracking to the west and then northwest into next week. This will put it on a path across the International Date Line into the Western Pacific Basin where it would then be called Typhoon Hector.”
Torrential rain leads to flooding in Chile:
“There are 17 large wildfires burning across the state and more than 14,000 firefighters working to put out the blazes, Cal Fire said on Tuesday. The two largest fires are the Mendocino Complex Fire — which itself is made up of two nearby fires that officials have combined — and the Carr Fire. The Mendocino Complex is now the largest fire in state history, and the Carr Fire is the 12th largest.”
“”A relationship between Arctic sea ice and tornadoes in the US may seem unlikely,” says co-author Jeff Trapp, an expert in atmospheric sciences. “But it is hard to ignore the mounting evidence in support of the connection.” Previous research has found that low Arctic sea ice has helped to promote extreme weather events in certain regions of the world.”
“Video released by the BC Wildfire Service shows fires raging near Telegraph Creek and Shovel Lake [Western BC].”
“If you were in Kodiak on Monday morning, it felt more like Hawaii than Alaska.”
“Record-breaking extremes marked the summer weather of 2018 in the Arctic: July’s varied conditions left some northern residents scrambling for ways to escape heat and others looking for shovels to clear new snow off their steps.”
“Heat and humidity records have been broken over the past month [in Nova Scotia], but it’s not just the summer time that’s seen record-breaking temperatures.”
“The weather agency said approximately 50 to 75 millimetres of rain fell in the span of two to three hours across the area. Localized areas may have experienced higher amounts of rainfall… Hull noted the normal rainfall amount for the entire month of August in Toronto is 78.1 millimetres.”
“As reported, part of the Skaftárjökull glacier [in Iceland] was measured to have collapsed by some eleven metres, indicating geological activity had melted a great deal of ice. This resulted in subsequent flooding through the southeast Iceland region.”
“Record-breaking temperatures across Europe have forced people to sleep in a Finnish supermarket, uncovered a piece of World War II history in Ireland and are making it harder to battle the wildfires that have been raging in Spain and Portugal for days.”
“Swiss army helicopters began airlifting water on Tuesday to thousands of thirsty cows who are suffering in a drought and heatwave that has hit much of Europe.”
“Several recent deaths in the Italian city of Genoa are thought to be linked to the prolonged heatwave across southern Europe, with temperatures set to remain high across the country and ten cities on ‘red alert’ for health risks.”
“The heat wave which hit Spain last Wednesday has claimed eight lives, according to the latest figures released on Tuesday afternoon.”
“Istanbul 1st Regional Meteorology Director Ahmet Kocaman… warned that as global temperatures continue to rise, Turkey will also feel the heat. Recent bouts of heavy rainfall causing floods in the Black Sea and Marmara regions and droughts in other are also a result of climate change, Kocaman explained. Municipalities should take rigorous measures to protest against extreme weather conditions, he added.”
““More than 80 percent water and sewerage came in nullah from Islamabad [Pakistan]. In capital city, 168 mm rain was recorded at Saidpur,” he said.”
“Thousands of people in Laos, whose homes were swept away when a dam burst, are sheltering in areas contaminated by landmines, humanitarians said, as floods and mud hamper aid delivery.”
An overview of recent climate mayhem:
Read yesterday’s ‘Climate’ thread here.